Thursday, October 25, 2007

BMW 5 Series

5 Series

BMW 5 Series

A mid-size luxury car / executive car. For MY 2008, BMW has revised the 5 series with a slightly redesigned interior, subtle exterior details, and new motor options. The motors offered are BMW's N52 and N54 inline 6-cylinder motors, as well as diesel and V8 options.

The BMW 5 series has been one of BMW's "experimenal" cars, in which they can explore newer ideas. They have inserted new technologies and new ideas into this model that may have seemed radical for its time. One such example of this "testing" approach is the new headlight design. These types of changes to the 5 Series have allowed BMW to assess the reaction of consumers to their new designs before expanding the changes to other model series. Consequently, it has at times led people to question BMW's approach to design.

  • The M5 is the motorsport division's version of the 5 Series. The new M5 (built on the E60 5 series chassis) is powered by a F1-inspired V10 engine, producing 507 hp (378 kW) and is mated with a 7-speed Sequential Manual Gearbox (SMG) transmission, which is capable of a delimited top speed of about 330 km/h (production variants are restricted to 250 km/h, or 155 mph). BMW has also recently added a 6-speed manual transmission for newer 2007 models. The colour palette differs from its more modest 5 Series siblings.

BMW 3 Series

3 Series

BMW 3 Series

3 Series is a compact executive car manufactured since MY 1975. The E90 is the 5th generation 3 series. Available from MY 2006 to present, it is offered as the sport sedan(E90), sport wagon(E91), sport coupe(E92), and sport coupe convertible(E93). The E90 series is completely re-engineered from the E46, including changes to motor choices, transmission, the passenger compartment comfort, suspension technology, as well as a host of High-Tech features and options.

The 3 series is not only one of BMW's most important models, it also accounts for a majority of worldwide sales.

bmw 1 series

The current BMW model lineup is split into what is referred to as "Series", traditionally identified by a single digit - e.g. the 3 Series.

In 2004 BMW announced plans to make odd-numbered series saloon/sedan and estate/wagon models (BMW calls its estates/wagons Touring models), while even-numbered series will be two-door coupés and cabriolets. This convention started informally in 1976 with the introduction of the 6 Series and later continued in 1989 with the 8 Series, but died off when the latter was discontinued in 1999. This practice was revived as the Z4 replaced the aging Z3 roadster in 2003 and continues as the new 6 Series augments the existing BMW 5 Series.

1 Series

BMW 1 Series

The 1 Series was launched in Fall 2004 and a 3-Door that was launched in July 2007 on the BMW International website. Because it is the only rear wheel drive vehicle in its class, it is considered the heir apparent to the original 2002 sport sedan from the 1960s. A Coupé has been announced for late 2007, and there are concepts for a convertible. U.S. introduction for the 1 series is expected in MY 2008 as a coupé and convertible, in the 128i and the 135i. The 135i is slated to receive the 300 horsepower (220 kW) twin turbo 6 cylinder engine from the 3 series. The 1 series pricing fits neatly between MINI and the current E90 3-series.

Sunday, April 22, 2007

Lexus IS

2006 Lexus IS
Manufacturer Lexus

The Lexus IS is a series of entry-level luxury cars/compact executive cars produced by the Lexus marque of Toyota Motor Corporation. The IS was introduced as an entry-level model slotted below the ES in the Lexus lineup and competing against the BMW 3 Series, Mercedes-Benz C-Class and Nissan Skyline/Infiniti G35 sports sedans. The IS was originally sold as the Toyota Altezza in Japan until the introduction of the second generation Lexus IS design. The Altezza name is still used at times to depict chromed car taillights like those known on the first generation model.

The first generation Altezza (codename XE10) was launched in Japan in October 1998, while the Lexus IS 200 (JCE10) made its debut in Europe in 1999 and in North America as the IS 300 in 2000. The first generation, I6-powered IS featured sedan and wagon variants. The second generation IS (GSE20) was launched globally in 2006 with V6-powered sedan models. A high-performance V8 version premiered in 2007. According to Lexus, the IS designation stands for Intelligent Sport.

First generation

First generation
US-spec Lexus IS300
Also called Lexus IS SportCross
Toyota Altezza
Production 1998–2005
Body style(s) 4–door sedan
5–door hatchback/station wagon
Engine(s) 2.0 L 1G-FE I6 (AS200)
2.0 L 3S-GE I4 (RS200)
3.0 L 2JZ-GE I6 (AS300)
Transmission(s) 4–speed automatic
5–speed manual
5–speed automatic
6-speed manual
Wheelbase 2670 mm (105.10 in)
Length 4485 mm (176.60 in)
Width 1725 mm (67.90 in)
Height 1410 mm (55.50 in)
Curb weight 1510 kg (IS 200)

Produced as a direct competitor to the luxury sport sedans of the leading European luxury marques, the Altezza/IS was designed with a greater performance emphasis than typically seen on prior Japanese luxury vehicles.[2] The design received critical acclaim at its 1998 launch, and was awarded Japan's "Car of the Year" honor for 1998-1999. A year later, Lexus began marketing the IS equivalent models in Europe, and the IS debuted in the U.S. as a 2001 model.

The Altezza came in 3 variants:

  • The AS200 (Chassis code TA-SXE-10, sedan or TA-GXE-10 FR Gita wagon, TA-GXE-15, 4WD Gita wagon), powered by a 1G-FE inline-6 engine generating 160 PS JIS (118 kW) or 155 PS DIN (114 kW) and mated to a 6–speed manual transmission (4–speed automatic optional)
  • The RS200 (Chassis code GH-SXE-10, sedan) powered by a Yamaha tuned 3S-GE inline-4 engine generating 210 PS JIS (154 kW) and mated to a 6–speed transmission (5–speed automatic optional)
  • The AS300 (Chassis code TA-JCE-10 FR Gita Wagon, or TA-JCE-15, 4WD Gita wagon) powered by a 2JZ-GE inline-6 engine generating 220 PS JIS (162 kW) or 215 hp SAE (160 kW) and mated to only a 5–speed automatic for the FR Gita Wagon or a 4–speed automatic for the 4WD Gita Wagon.

Lexus IS vehicles sold in Europe and North America, as well as the Japanese hatchback/station wagon version called the Gita (called Lexus IS SportCross in the U.S. and Europe) were only available in the 3.0 liter 6-cylinder version (2JZ-GE). In the U.S. market, sales fell below expectations; after hitting a high of 22,486 units in 2001, IS sales dropped below the 10,000-unit mark in 2004. The IS 200 fared better in Europe and Asia, but still fell well short of the sales volume achieved by the Mercedes-Benz C-Class and other, mostly German-made competitors. This trend was indicative of Lexus' smaller global status; while Lexus' range of cars is very successful in North America, the marque's sales still lag behind its German rivals in Europe and several other markets.

The IS 200/300 interior featured unique elements not typically found in other Lexus models. These included a chrome metal ball shifter, pop-up navigation screen, and chronograph-styled instrument panel (with mini gauges for temperature, fuel economy, and volts). The styling cues of the rear light clusters on the first generation Lexus IS were copied by a number of after-market accessory manufacturers for applications on other vehicles. This iconic style of one or more internal lamp units, covered with a clear (or tinted) perspex cover made popular by Lexus, became known in many circles as 'Lexus-style' or 'Altezza' lights.

The EPA listed the first generation IS as a subcompact car, despite being a compact on the inside.


The 2JZ-GE powered IS series are popular amongst tuners in the U.S. because of their 6-cylinder engines. The Altezza is mostly popular amongst tuners not only because of its possible engine swap for the previous generation Toyota Supra's 2JZ-GTE motor, but as it is viewed as the successor to the renowned AE86. Modified versions of the 2JZ-GTE have been seen with over 750 kW (1000 hp).

2001 Toyota Altezza
2001 Toyota Altezza

In Japan, the RS200 has a wide availability of tuning parts, the engine block is similar to the last of the SW20 MR2 and ST202 Celica but offers an upgraded Dual VVT-i. As a result, a number of tuning companies has modified the IS/Altezza over the years.

TTE converted an IS 200 first, and within a few years RMM in the US converted an IS 300. The MillenWorks-built Lexus IS 430 was unveiled at the 2003 SEMA Show in Las Vegas, Nevada. The IS 430 prototype is an IS 300 fitted with a 4.3 L V8 from the Lexus GS. Lexus dubbed the IS 430 a one-off with no plans for production. In Europe, Toyota Team Europe (TTE) shoehorned a supercharged 4.3 L V8 into a IS 300 bodyshell, the result is a 405 PS ECE (298 kW) sedan capable of accelerating from 0-100 km/h in 4.5 seconds. TTE also produced an aftermarket supercharger kit for the IS 200, raising the power output to 204 ps ECE (150 kw).

At the mean time, a number of Japanese tuning firms, HKS, Blitz, Top Secret, Sard, Power Enterprise, including Toyota's own TRD, started to develop plenty of performance parts, typically from super chargers, turbo chargers, and even individual throttle bodies, and sometimes complete car conversions.

The RS200 is also used by many racing teams, including TRD (Toyota Racing Development), to race in various touring car racing series across Asia. A Lexus IS 200, based on a heavily modified RS200, has also raced in the British Touring Car Championship with limited success.

Second generation

Second generation
2006 Lexus IS 250 AWD
Production 2006–present
Body style(s) 4–door sedan
Engine(s) 2.2 L diesel (IS 220d)
2.5 L 4GR-FSE V6 (IS 250)
3.0 L 3GR-FE V6 (IS 300)
3.5 L 2GR-FSE V6 (IS 350)
Transmission(s) 6–speed manual
6–speed automatic
Wheelbase 2730 mm (107.50 in)
Length 4575 mm (180.10 in)
Width 1800 mm (70.90 in)
Height 1425 mm (56.10 in)
Curb weight 1570 kg (IS 250)

The IS was completely redesigned for the 2006 model year and was introduced in the fall of 2005. The Toyota Altezza name ceased to be used with the introduction of the Lexus name in Japan. A pre-production car of the second generation IS model was shown in the 2005 Geneva Auto Show. The slow-selling SportCross station wagon version was dropped from the lineup worldwide.

The new IS was the second debut of Lexus' new L-finesse design philosophy on a production vehicle, following the premiere of the 2006 Lexus GS performance sedan. The new IS design featured sleeker, coupe-like contours, a fastback profile, and a repeated arrowhead motif in the front fascia and side windows. The forward design was reminiscent of the earlier Lexus LF-C coupe concept. The second generation IS made its North American debut at the 2005 New York International Auto Show.

For Japan, the United States and Canada, three IS models are sold by Lexus:

  • IS 250 - 2.5 L V6, 204 hp (152 kW), rear wheel drive
  • IS 250 AWD - 2.5 L 4GR-FSE V6 with all wheel drive, 204 hp (152 kW) (Not offered in Japan)
  • IS 350 - 3.5 L 2GR-FSE V6, 306 hp (228 kW), rear wheel drive

In the United Kingdom and parts of Europe, two IS models are sold by Lexus:

  • IS 250 - 2.5 L V6, 204 hp (152 kW), rear wheel drive
  • IS 220d - 2.2 L Inline-4, 175 hp (130 kW), diesel engine, rear wheel drive, manual transmission only

The IS 250 is available in Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Singapore, Hong Kong (Automatic only), Taiwan, and South Korea. For China, Brunei, and Middle East markets, one model, the IS 300, with a 3.0 L 3GR-FE V6 engine (without gasoline direct injection), 228 hp (170 kW), and rear wheel drive, is sold. The diesel-powered IS 220d is only available in Europe.

The IS 250 RWD comes standard with a 6–speed manual transmission, and a 6–speed automatic transmission is available as an option. The IS 250 AWD, the IS 300, and the IS 350 are only available with the 6–speed automatic.

Compared to the first generation IS model, the second generation IS sedans offer a more typical Lexus interior with a focus on luxurious accouterments. The interior features leather seats, lightsaber-like electroluminescent dash display lighting, and the choice of metallic or Bird's Eye Maple wood trim. Lexus SmartAccess keyless entry with push-button start is a standard feature. A high-resolution touchscreen navigation system, Bluetooth, a backup camera, and a Mark Levinson premium sound system with 14 speakers are available options. Other available features include a moonroof, power rear sunshade, and parking sensors. A precrash system is the first offered in the entry-luxury performance sedan market segment.

IS 350 LED taillamps
IS 350 LED taillamps

The IS 350's performance was praised in a 2007 Road & Track Japanese luxury sports sedan comparison, in which the IS took first place and clocked a 0-100 km/h (0-60 mph) time of 4.9 seconds.[3] Citing independent testing by auto research firm AMCI, Lexus highlighted the IS' acceleration as the "fastest in its class." Some say this marks Lexus' first foray into the sport compact market that compares fairly well with its German competitors. However, prevailing criticisms are that its steering is not as communicative as that of the BMW 3 Series, its stability and traction control systems could not be fully disabled, and that the higher-performance IS 350 is only offered with an automatic transmission. In response to these criticisms, Lexus added a stability/traction control disable switch for 2007 IS models.

For 2006 IS models, the stability control system/traction control system can be disabled through non-conventional methods by using a code during engine start. This involves starting the car with the parking brake engaged, releasing the parking brake, pushing the brake pedal twice, holding it on the second push, engaging the parking brake twice, holding it on the second, and repeating until the vehicle traction light appears on the dash. This will effectively disable the system until the car is turned off.

In the 2007 IS models, in addition to the on/off switch for the traction-control system, Lexus added a roof-mounted shark-fin antenna. A new X-Package added special five-spoke wheels, illuminated scuff plates, and a rear lip spoiler.

The introduction of the second generation IS model marked a resurgence in sales, with a 332% increase overall in 2006 compared to the previous year. In its first year of sales, the IS sold over 49,000 units, making it one of the ten best-selling luxury cars in the U.S. Abroad, the Lexus IS spearheaded Lexus' growing sales efforts in Europe, Australia, and South Africa, becoming the best-selling model in Lexus' lineup in many of the aforementioned markets.


The second generation IS already has a variety of tuning parts from famous Japanese tuning companies. Although the new IS has only been on the market for a short period of time, there are already a number of body kits for it, showing the high demand for aftermarket tuning parts. In 2007, the Japanese TOM'S aftermarket tuning firm produced a modified IS 350 with a revised ECU, new air filter, modified exhaust, and additional available performance enhancements ranging from suspension to brakes. The pending release of the 2008 Lexus IS-F will feature the debut of the first production-sanctioned racing modifications to the second generation IS design. In 2007, Lexus announced a Project Vehicle Program for that year's SEMA show, centered around the high-performance IS-F model. Lexus invited SEMA manufacturer members to submit their project Lexus vehicles for its show exhibition. It was the first time that the manufacturer had a formal presence at the aftermarket convention.


The 2008 Lexus IS-F debuted at the Detroit Auto Show.
The 2008 Lexus IS-F debuted at the Detroit Auto Show.

In 2006, several automotive publications reported on rumors of a higher performance variant of the IS being tested at various stages of development. Spy photos of such a vehicle being tested in Germany and California were published in several magazines and websites. Among these spy reports, several photos were shown of a heavily modified and camouflaged IS sedan at the Nürburgring test track in Germany along with other disguised Lexus test vehicles. The previous generation IS 430 prototype vehicle was indicative of future possibilities for the IS series, including the likelihood that a second generation high-performance IS model could come equipped with a V8 engine.

On 6 December, 2006, Lexus officially confirmed the existence of the vehicle which they called IS-F in the press release. The IS-F sedan premiered at the 2007 North American International Auto Show on 8 January, 2007 as the launch product of Lexus' F-Series lineup of performance-focused vehicles. A 5.0 L V8 producing over 400 hp and 350 ft-lb powers the new IS-F. The engine also features a two-stage intake system, engine oil and transmission fluid coolers and an oil pump designed for high-speed cornering. Images were leaked a couple of hours before the official announcement.

Quad tailpipe design of the Lexus IS-F.
Quad tailpipe design of the Lexus IS-F.

At its press debut, Lexus revealed that a separate "skunk works" team designed the IS-F in a manner distinct from typical Lexus engineering efforts. The IS-F promises 0-100 km/h (0-60 mph) acceleration under 5 seconds. The vehicle featured an 8-speed direct sport-shift transmission, a new sport version of Lexus' electronic stability control system (Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management featuring three distinct on-off modes), and was equipped with Brembo brakes stamped with the Lexus emblem. Other design features included a four-passenger cabin with carbon-fiber panels, steering wheel paddle shifters, and 19-inch alloy wheels. The vehicle body was lowered by 1 cm (0.5 inches) compared to the standard IS.

According to an Autoweek item, Lexus may build only 1000 IS-Fs for the US market, a number that has not been confirmed by Lexus. Autoweek also suggested that the IS-F would have a top speed of 320 km/h (200 mph) (contradicting the generally accepted standard for this automotive class), leading automotive news sites to question the accuracy of their information. The editor and representatives of a major Lexus IS enthusiast website with Lexus press access further suggested that Autoweek's 200 mph, 1000-unit figures may be referring to the LF-A supercar, which Lexus did indicate could reach 200 mph. In 2007, the head of Lexus GB stated in an interview that 150 IS-Fs would be allocated for the UK market.


  • J.D. Power and Associates named the second generation IS 250/IS 350 sedans the best vehicles in the entry luxury class in its 2006 Initial Quality Survey.
  • J.D. Power and Associates named the first generation IS 300 sedan and IS 300 SportCross the best vehicles in the entry luxury class in its 2005 Initial Quality Survey.
  • Ward's Auto bestowed the IS 350 V6 engine with one of its 10 Best Engines awards in 2006. The IS 350 V6 engine was also named to the Ward's 10 Best Engines list in 2007.
  • The 2007 Lexus IS was the winner of the Golden Steering Wheel Award in the Luxury category, according to German newspaper Bild am Sonntag. This award, selected by a jury panel of 25 automotive experts, was presented to Lexus in a Berlin ceremony.
  • British automotive magazine Top Gear named the Lexus IS as the Executive Car of the Year in 2006.
  • The Canadian Car of the Year Awards, selected by the Automobile Journalists Association of Canada, gave the IS 350 its Best New Technology award in 2006.
  • The Lexus IS was a finalist for Wheels magazine's Car of the Year (COTY) awards and also the World Car of the Year (WCOTY) award in 2006.
  • Kelley Blue Book gave the first generation IS 300 its Best to Hold Value Award in 2001

Toyota Alphard

Toyota Alphard Hybrid
Manufacturer Toyota

The Toyota Alphard is a minivan produced by the Japanese automaker Toyota since 2004. It is available as a seven or eight-seater with 2.4 and 3.0-litre gasoline engines. The Alphard is primarily made for the Japanese market, but was also sold in Hong Kong from 2004 to 2006. The vehicle was named after the Alphard, the brightest star in the constellation Hydra.

In 2006, a Royal Lounge Alphard was introduced; it is a luxurious four-seat version of the Alphard.

Toyota states its "E-Four electric 4WD system that regulates a rear-mounted, rear-wheel-propelling electric motor and coordinates electric power distribution to all four wheels. An ECB (Electrically Controlled Brake system) provides efficient wheel-by-wheel brake control."

The full-size Alphard Hybrid Minivan qualifies as an Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV), achieving levels 75-percent lower emissions than the Japanese government's 2000 benchmark. The 2.4-litre gasoline engine has been developed specifically for use in Toyota's hybrid systems and features a high-expansion ratio cycle that raises efficiency and reduces friction.

"by-wire" technology

The Alphard Hybrid uses "by-wire" technology that monitors brake pedal pressure and vehicle speed in order to calculate the optimum hydraulic pressure. By-wire works with the E-Four to maximize the collection of kinetic energy from braking for conversion into electric power.

The Alphard Hybrid Minivan can generate up to 1,500 watts and is equipped with standard 100-volt AC power outlets, allowing a wide range of appliances to be used, such as laptops and emergency lights. The electrical outlets can also be used to recharge items such as power-assisted bicycles and electric carts, adding a new dimension to leisure activities.

The Alphard Hybrid also offers some advanced safety features not seen on other hybrids. In fact, standard on the "G edition" and optional on standard grades are ( with a G-BOOK compatible DVD voice navigation system):

Blind Corner Monitor, which indicates the approach of other vehicles or pedestrians from the left and right Back Guide Monitor with a color CCD camera and voice-guidance function, which uses signals from a steering sensor to calculate the likely reverse path during reversing and display it on the monitor screen Lane-monitoring system that uses images from the Back Guide Monitor camera to measure the lateral distance to white or yellow lines on major highways and triggers an alarm when the distance falls below a pre-set level Radar Cruise Control, which uses laser radar sensors and steering sensors to keep track of the vehicle's lane and any preceding vehicle and ensures that a safe distance is maintained in accordance with vehicle speed

Built-in electronic toll collection

In addition, optional on all grades is a built-in electronic toll collection unit that allows for quick tollgate pass-through (only available with a navigation system). The Alphard Hybrid achieves approximately 42 mpg and boasts an insulated body and newly developed two-way compressor that is incorporated in the motor to optimize the use of the air conditioner, conserving fuel. The Alphard Hybrid's specially developed windshield glass also reduces the amount of solar radiation penetration. In addition, the roof and roof panels contain an insulating material to reduce cabin temperature, which helps conserve energy when the air conditioner is operating.

While only available in Japan, the Toyota Alphard Hybrid Minivan is worth checking out for those traveling to this location. The Alphard's sister vehicle, the Sienna Hybrid will most likely be the first hybrid minivan introduced into the U. S. marketplace though the schedule has not yet been announced. Toyota's smaller hybrid minivan, the Estima Hybrid is also only in Japanese markets and will likely not be rolled out to the larger marketplace anytime soon.

Toyota Allion

Toyota Allion
The Toyota Allion is a compact sedan sold in Japan by Toyota.

The name is created based on the phrase "all-in-one".

Launched in December 2001, it replaced the Toyota Carina. The Allion is a younger, more edgy counterpart to the Toyota Premio sedan, launched at the same time.

Toyota Corolla

Facelifted 9th-gen Corolla sedan (US)
Manufacturer Toyota, NUMMI

The Toyota Corolla is a compact car produced by the Japanese automaker Toyota, which has acquired significant popularity throughout the world since the nameplate was first introduced in 1966. In 1997, the Corolla became the bestselling car in the world, with over 30 million sold as of 2007.

Corollas are currently manufactured in Japan, the United States (Fremont, California), the United Kingdom (Derbyshire), Canada (Cambridge, Ontario), Malaysia, China (Tianjin), Taiwan, Pakistan, South Africa, Brazil, Turkey, Philippines, Thailand, Venezuela and India.

The Corolla's chassis designation code is "E", as described in Toyota's chassis and engine codes.

Alternative versions

Using the Corolla chassis

A slightly downmarket version called the Toyota Sprinter was sold in the Japanese home market. It was replaced in 2001 by the Toyota Allex, which was then replaced by the Toyota Blade in 2006. There have also been several models over the years, including the Corolla Ceres (and similar Sprinter Marino) hardtop, Corolla Levin and Sprinter Trueno sports coupés and hatchbacks, and the Corolla FX hatchback, which became the Corolla Runx. The Runx was replaced by the Auris in 2006.

Over the years, there have been rebadged versions of the Corolla, including the 1980s' Holden Nova of Australia, and the Sprinter-based Chevrolet Nova, Geo Prizm then Geo Prizm of the United States. The Corolla liftback (TE72) of Toyota Australia was at one point badged the T-18. The five-door liftback was sold with the Corolla Seca name in Australia and the nameplate survived on successive five-door models. The Daihatsu Charmant was produced with the E30 through E70 series.

The Chevrolet Nova is based on E80 Japanese Sprinter sedan and five-door liftback. The Geo/Chevrolet Prizm was produced with the E90 through E110 series.

Using the Corolla name

The Toyota Tercel was a front wheel drive spin-off of the rear wheel drive Corolla introduced in 1980, called the Corolla Tercel which later became its own model in 1983.

The Tercel Chassis was used again for the Corolla II hatchback.

First Generation — E10 series — October 1966

First generation
First generation 1969 Toyota Corolla
Production 1966-1970
Body style(s) 2 and 4-door sedan, coupé, wagon
Layout FR layout
Engine(s) 1.1, 1.2 liter
Similar Datsun 1000

Japan (1966-1970)

The Corolla was launched in Japan in October 1966. Eiji Toyoda, chairman of the company, said it worked hard to create popular demand, and disputes that Toyota rode a wave of private car ownership that was taking off in the mid-1960s. Its major competitor was the Datsun 1000, released a few months before the Corolla.

The initial car, the KE1x series was small, with a 90 in (2286 mm) wheelbase.

Transmission was by a 4-speed floor shift manual transmission or a 2-speed floor or column shift automatic transmission, with rear wheel drive. At the time, floor shift transmissions were considered only for trucks and 4 speeds implied that the engine didn't have enough torque to drive through only 3 gears (more torque allows each gear to have a wider spread of engine revolutions, thus requiring less gears). This was a big risk for Toyota but the effectiveness of the new system gained in popularity.

The suspension in front was MacPherson struts supported by a transverse leaf spring beneath the engine cross-member, with leaf springs connected to a solid axle in back.

The engine was originally meant to be for the under 1000cc tax class but was changed late in the design process to be 1077cc in order to beat the forthcoming Datsun 1000. This put it into a higher tax class but this gave it some prestige over the Datsun 1000 - helped by its "100cc advantage" advertising campaign. In August 1969 the engine was upgraded to 1166cc. Special twin carburetter K-B (1077cc) and 3K-B (1166cc) engines were used in the SL grade models for an extra 13HP.

Japanese engines:

  • 1K — 1.1 L (1077 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 60 hp (44 kW)
  • 1K-B — 1.1 L (1077 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, twin carb, 73 hp (54 kW)
  • 3K — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 65 hp (48 kW)
  • 3K-B — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, twin carb

JPN-market chassis:

  • E-10 — 1077cc Sedan (2-door/4-door)
  • E-15 — 1077cc Hardtop coupé
  • E-16 — 1077cc Wagon, 2-door
  • E-11 — 1166cc Sedan (2-door/4-door)
  • E-17 — 1166cc Hardtop coupé
  • E-18 — 1166cc Wagon, 2-door

USA (1968-1970)

Toyota has been almost steadfast in facelifting each generation after two years, and replacing it with an all-new model every four years. Exports to the United States began in March 1968 at about US$1,700.

American engines:

  • 1K — 1.1 L (1077 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 60 hp (44 kW)
  • 3K — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 65 hp (48 kW)

US-market chassis:

  • E-10 — 1077cc Sedan (2-door/4-door)
  • E-15 — 1077cc Hardtop coupé
  • E-16 — 1077cc Wagon, 2-door
  • E-11 — 1166cc Sedan (2-door/4-door)
  • E-17 — 1166cc Hardtop coupé
  • E-18 — 1166cc Wagon, 2-door

Australia (1966-1970)

The first export market for the Corolla was Australia in November 1966. Australia received right hand drive versions of the same models as America .

Second Generation — E20 series — 1970

Second generation
Second generation Toyota Corolla
Production 1970-1978
Body style(s) 2 and 4-door sedan, coupé, 3- and 5-door wagon, van
Layout FR layout
Engine(s) 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 liter
Similar Chevrolet Vega
Datsun B210
Ford Pinto
Honda Civic

The second-generation KE2# / TE2# model, launched 1970, had "coke-bottle" styling. It had a longer 91.9 in (2334 mm) wheelbase. The front suspension design was improved greatly, using a swaybar, however the rear remained relatively the same. The Corolla became the second-best selling car in the world that year. Grades for sedan were Standard, Deluxe, and Hi-Deluxe. The coupé was offered in Deluxe, SL, SR, and Levin as well as Sprinter variants. The Sprinter Trueno was equivalent to the Corolla Levin.

The TE27 Levin is featured in Auto Modellista, a racing video game by Capcom.

Minor changes were made for the 1973 model year with a new grille, turn signal lights, and tail lights, along with similar treatment to the Sprinter.

Japan (1970-1978)

Most models stopped production in July 1974 but the KE26 wagon and van were still marketed in Japan after the 30-series was introduced.

Japanese engines:

  • T — 1.4 L (1407 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 86hp (63 kW)
  • T-D — 1.4 L (1407 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 90hp (66 kw)
  • T-B — 1.4 L (1407 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, twin carb,
  • 2T — 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 75 hp (56 kW)
  • 2T-B — 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, twin carb
  • 2T-G — 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4, 2-valve DOHC, twin carb, 115 hp (86 kW)
  • 3K — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 55 hp (41 kW)
  • 3K-D — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 73 hp (54 kW)
  • 3K-B — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, twin carb, 77 hp (57 kW)

JPN-market chassis:

  • KE20 — 1166cc Sedan, 2-door/4-door (Std, DX, Hi-DX)
  • TE20 — 1407cc Sedan, 2-door/4-door (Std, DX, Hi-DX)
  • KE25 — 1166cc Hardtop coupé (DX, Hi-DX, SL)
  • TE25 — 1407cc Hardtop coupé (DX, Hi-DX, SL, SR)
  • KE26 — 1166cc Wagon, 3-door/5-door
  • TE27 — 1588cc Hardtop Coupé (Levin/Trueno twincam)

USA (1971-1974)

The Japan chassis models were all available in USA. A 1.6 L (1588 cc/96 in³) 102 hp (76 kW) engine came in 1971, quite impressive for the time, and a sporty hardtop coupé called the SR5 (also known as the Levin in Japan) was introduced in 1973. In 1974, the SR5 was entered by Car & Driver magazine's team in SCCA competition.

American engines:

  • 2T-C — 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 102 hp (76 kW)
  • 3K-C — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 55 hp (41 kW)

US-market chassis: TE21 — Sedan, 2-door/4-door (Std, DX, Hi-DX) TE26 — Wagon, DX TE27 — Hardtop coupé (SR5)

Third generation — E30, E40, E50 series — April 1974

Third generation
1976 Toyota Corolla, European version
Production 1974-1981
Body style(s) 2 and 4-door sedan, hardtop coupé, 3- and 5-door wagon, van
Layout FR layout
Engine(s) 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 liter
Related Daihatsu Charmant
Similar Chevrolet Monza
Datsun B210
Ford Pinto
Honda Civic

Japan (1974-1981)

The third-generation Toyota Corolla, built from 1974-81 (worldwide versions) (KE3x/KE5x), marked Toyota's greatest growth in the United States in the wake of the fuel crisis. In addition to the Sprinter, there was a redesigned-body version built by Toyota affiliate Daihatsu, called the Daihatsu Charmant. While there were certain fourth-generation models with a longer model life, this generation, when considered as a whole, was the longest-lived one, possibly due to the worldwide recession in the 1970s. A large range of cars were built using this chassis, including Corollas, Sprinters, Daihatsu, and the sporty Levin and Trueno models with the DOHC motor.

The 3K engine was used in certain markets and later the 4K, while most Japanese and American models had the bigger 2T engine. A "Toyoglide" 2/3-speed automatic transmission was added as well as a four-speed and five-speed manual transmission, driving to the rear wheels. A three-door "liftback" (E50) and sports coupé (E51) was added in 1976. The E40 and E60 series were assigned to the Sprinter variants.

Japanese engines:

  • 2T-G — 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4, 8-valve DOHC, carb, 124 hp (93 kW)
  • 2T-C — 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4, 8-valve OHV, carb, 75 hp (56 kW)
  • 3K-C — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 8-valve OHV, carb, 55 hp (41 kW)

JPN-market chassis:

  • E31 — Sedan, 2-door/4-door
  • E36 — Wagon, 3 or 5-door
  • E38 — Wagon, 3 or 5-door
  • E37Hardtop coupé (Levin)
  • E51 — Sports coupé (Levin GT)
  • E55 — Liftback (Levin GT)

USA (1975-1979)

Road & Track was critical of the 1975 Corolla, calling it "large and heavy" and "expensive" compared to the Honda Civic and Datsun B210. They also criticized the "relatively crude rear suspension" and lack of interior space and poor fuel economy when compared to the VW Rabbit. The base model cost US$2,711 in 1975, but one needed to step up to the $2,989 "deluxe" to get features comparable to the contemporary pack.

However emissions became a problem further into the 1970s, and the 4K engine which became popular because of its low fuel consumption. In later versions of the K engine, emissions equipment in the series produced only 60 hp (45 kW), despite an increased capacity of 1290 cc.

The E30 series 2T-C engines outmatched rival Datsun B210's engine output.

American engines:

  • 2T-C — 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 75 hp (56 kW)
  • 3K-C — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 55 hp (41 kW)

US-market chassis:

  • E-31 — Sedan, 2-door/4-door (Std, DX, E/5)
  • E-35 — wagon, 5-door (Std, DX)
  • E-37Hardtop coupé (DX, SR5)
  • E-51 — Sports coupé (Std, SR5)
  • E-55 — Liftback, 3-door (Std, SR5)

Fourth generation — E70 series — 1979-1987

Fourth generation
Toyota Corolla KE70 coupé
Production 1979-1983
Body style(s) 2 and 4-door sedan, hardtop coupé, liftback coupé, liftback, 3- and 5-door wagon, highroof wagon, van
Layout FR layout
Engine(s) 1.3, 1.6, 1.8 liter
Related Daihatsu Charmant
Similar Dodge Colt
Ford Escort
Honda Civic
Mazda GLC
Datsun 210

The fourth-generation model released in 1979 in Japan, was boxy and was the last generation to have the entire lineup in rear-wheel-drive. Although most of the fourth generation was replaced by 1984, the station wagon and van versions were offered into 1987.

This generation (apart from the wagon) got a new rear coil spring five-link rear end with a panhard rod, and the wheelbase was longer at 94.5 in (2400 mm). A new underwhelming 1.8 L (1770 cc/108 in³) 3T engine was optional to some markets, whilst parts of the world retained the old 4K. The most notable engine advancement came in 1983, however, as Toyota began offering the 1.6 L (1587 cc/96 in³) 4A-C. The aluminum head, SOHC engine, although bulkier in size and weight than the K and T engines it was offered alongside, was a grand step up in performance. This would be the last generation of Corollas to use any pushrod or iron cylinder head engines, as Toyota made the decision to focus exclusively on aluminium head, OHC engine design from this point forward. This was the first generation to have power steering. In the USDM market, this was introduced in the 1982 model year. The 1980-81 models had 4 lamps in the front in some markets, all 1982-83 models have 2 - a facelift involving wraparound headlights, remodelled taillights and new bumpers were introduced for 1982.

In 1980, during this model's life, Corolla daily production reached an all-time high, averaging 2,346 units.

American engines:

  • 3T-C — 1.8 L (1770 cc) I4, 8-valve Pushrod, carb, 75 hp (56 kW)
  • 4A-C — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 8-valve SOHC, carb, 90 hp (67 kW)

Australian engines:

  • 4K-C — 1.3 L (1290 cc) I4, 8-valve Pushrod, carb, 65 hp
  • 4A-C — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 8-valve SOHC, carb, 90 hp (67 kW)

Japanese engines:

  • 4K-J — 1.3 L (1290 cc) I4, 8-valve Pushrod, carb
  • 5K-C — 1.5 L (1495 cc) I4, 8-valve Pushrod, carb
  • 3A-U — 1.5 L (1490 cc) I4, 8-valve SOHC, carb
  • 2T-G — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 8-valve DOHC, EFI

US-market chassis:

  • E-71 — Sedan, 2-door/4-door (Std, DX)
  • E-72 — wagon, 5-door (Std, DX)
  • E-72Hardtop coupé (DX, SR5)
  • E-72 — Sports coupé (SR5)
  • E-72 — Liftback, 3-door (Std, SR5)

Fifth generation — E80 series — 1983

Fifth generation
" longdesc="/wiki/Image:Toyota_corolla_1985.JPG" height="188" width="250">
Also called Toyota AE86 Sprinter Trueno
Chevrolet Nova
Production 1983-1987
Body style(s) Sedan, 3-door hatchback, coupé, liftback, Station wagon.
Layout FF layout/All wheel drive
Engine(s) Gasoline: 1.3, 1.6
Diesel: 1.8 liter.
Transmission(s) 3-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Wheelbase 243 cm (95.6 in.)
Length 425 cm (167.5 in.)
Width 256 cm (65.1 in.)
Height 133 cm (52.3 in.)
Curb weight 1047 kg (2304 lbs)
Similar Ford Escort
Honda Civic
Mazda 323
Nissan Sentra

The fifth generation is generally regarded as the most popular Corolla when measured against its contemporaries, and some 3.3 million units were produced. This model, from 1983, moved the Corolla into front wheel drive, except for the AE85 and AE86 Corolla Levin / Sprinter Trueno models (SR-5 / GT-S in USA) which continued on the older rear wheel drive platform, along with the three-door "liftback" (E72), three-door van (E70) and five-door wagon (E70) of the previous generation, that were still being produced.

The front-wheel-drive wheelbase was now 95.6 in (2428 mm).

It was the first Corolla to top the New Zealand top-10 lists, ending Ford's dominance of that market. A "short" hatchback range, called the Corolla FX in Japan and the Corolla Compact in Germany, arrived in 1984, on the front-wheel-drive platform. The three and five-door hatchbacks resembled the Corolla sedan with a truncated rear deck and trunk. Although there was a five-door liftback model of the basic Corolla, the FX-based hatchback was sold alongside it. The Corolla FX replaced the Toyota Starlet in North America.

A DOHC 16-valve engine, designated 4A-GE, was added in 1983 on the rear-drive cars. It was a 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4 and produced an impressive 124 hp (92 kW), turning the Levin/Trueno (Japan), Corolla GT coupé (Europe) and Corolla GT-S into a popular sports car. This engine was also combined with the front-drive transaxle to power the mid-engined Toyota MR-2.

The Sprinter sports cars, in two-door coupé and three-door liftback forms, were notable for the line's first use of pop-up headlamps, which the equivalent Corolla Levin sports models did not have. These AE86 models have been immortalized in the anime series Initial D, and have been also featured in the computer and video games Need for Speed: Underground 2, Gran Turismo 2, 3 & 4, the Tokyo Extreme Racer series, Auto Modellista and most recently Need For Speed: Carbon.

A new Corolla FX, built at the US NUMMI plant, appeared in 1987. It was available with either SOHC or DOHC engines, the latter marketed as the FX-16.

USA (1984-1987)

American engines:

  • 4A-C 1.6 L I4, 8-valve SOHC, carb, 90 hp (67 kW)
  • 4A-GE 1.6 L I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 115 hp (86 kW)

US-market chassis:

  • AE82 — FWD sedan, 2-door/4-door, hatchback(Std, LE, LE Ltd, SR-5) 3-door (FX/FX16)
  • AE84 — 4WD 5-door wagon (Std, DX)
  • AE86 — RWD coupé 2-door, 3-door hatchback (SR-5)
  • AE88 — RWD coupé 2-door, 3-door hatchback, (GT-S)

Europe (1984-1987)

Australian engines:

  • 4A-C 1.6 L, 8-valve SOHC, carb, 78 hp (58 kW)
  • 4A-GE 1.6 L I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 115 hp (86 kW)

Australian-market chassis:

  • AE80 — FWD 4-door sedan /5-door hatchback
  • AE82 — FWD 4-door sedan /5-door hatchback
  • AE86 — RWD 2-door coupé /3-door hatchback (Badged as Toyota Sprinter)

European engines

  • 2A 1.3 L, 8-valve SOHC, carb, 69 hp
  • 4A 1.6 L, 8-valve SOHC, carb, 84 hp
  • 4A-GE 1.6 L I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 121 hp (86 kW)
  • 1C 1.8 L, Diesel, Mechanical Injection, 58 hp
  • 2E 1.3 L, 12-valve SOHC, carb, 75 hp

European-market chassis:

  • E80 — FWD 4-door sedan /5-door liftback
  • E80 — FWD 3-door liftback
  • E82 — FWD 3-door hatchback
  • E86 — RWD 2-door coupé /3-door hatchback

Sixth generation — E90 series — May 1987

Sixth generation
US-spec E90 Corolla
Also called Geo Prizm, Holden Nova
Production 1987-1992
Body style(s) Sedan, 3-door hatchback, 5-door hatchback, coupé, liftback, wagon.
Layout FF layout/All wheel drive
Engine(s) Gasoline: 1.3, 1.5, 1.6, 1.6 liter Supercharged. Diesel: 2.0 liter.
Transmission(s) 3-Speed Automatic
4-Speed Automatic Overdrive
5-Speed Manual Overdrive
Wheelbase 243 cm (95.7 in.)
Length 433 cm (170.3 in.)
Width 166 cm (65.2 in.)
Height 133 cm (52.4 in.)
Curb weight 1086 kg (2390 lbs)
Similar Honda Civic
Mazda Protege
Mitsubishi Mirage
Nissan Sentra

All Corollas were front-drive for 1987, with production beginning in May 1987. For general export, the trim levels are Base, XL, GL, SE, and SE Limited. The GT-i was sold in limited numbers in certain countries. The all wheel drive Sprinter Carib wagon used a solid axle rear suspension with coil springs, while the rest used struts all around. The 4WD wagon was sold from 1988 to 1994 and had different bodywork to other Corollas. It was called the All-Trac in the US and sold with the Tercel or Corolla name in some countries. in general, all models depart from the previous generation's boxy styling, for a more contemporary look and improved aerodynamics.

The Sprinter five-door liftback was called Cielo in Japan, and re-badged as the Corolla in Europe, though for a period in Ireland (and possibly elsewhere) it was badged the "Sprinter GLS", unusually in cheap-looking decals instead of the metallic-coated plastic badges found on all other Toyotas of the time.

High performance GT-i models are powered by 4A-GE, and offered as 3-door hatchback, sedan, and 5-door liftback. The North American GT-S coupé shared the same engine.

This was awarded the 1988 Semperit Irish Car of the Year.

South Africa (1996-2006)

A facelifted version of the sixth-generation five-door hatchback was made in South Africa as an entry-level model called the Toyota Tazz from 1996 till the 5th July 2006. The Tazz was offered as 130, and 160i. Whilst the three-door was sold as a panel van model there, called the Toyota Carri.

Japan (1987—1991)

1987 Toyota Sprinter
1987 Toyota Sprinter

The 1.3 liter sedan has 4 speed manual transmission or 3 speed automatic transmission. The only model with 1.5 liter 5A-FHE was SE-Limited G. The 4WD sedan is powered by 1.6 liter 4A-FE. The Sprinter sedan has opera window on the C-Pillar.

The AE92 Levin and Trueno were also fitted with a supercharged engine. It used an SC12 roots type supercharger and a top mounted intercooler that was fed cool air via a scoop on the bonnet. They generated 206 Nm (152 ft·lbs) at 4,400 rpm as opposed to the N/a 4A-GE's 136 Nm (100 ft·lbs) at 4,800 rpm. The Corolla and Sprinter commercial van have recessed headlights.

JPN-market chassis:

  • AE82 — Hatchback FX, FX16, FX16 GTS 1.6 liter
  • EE90 — Sedan 4-door (DX Custom, TX) 1.3 liter
  • AE91 — Sedan 4-door (DX, SE, SE Limited G), wagon 5-door 1.5 liter
  • AE92 — 2 door coupé (Levin), Sedan 4-door (SE Limited, GT) 1.6 liter
  • AE94 — 4WD sedan 4-door (DX, SE Limited) 1.6 liter
  • AE95 — FWD/4WD wagon 5-door (Carib)
  • EE97 — FWD wagon 5-door (Std, XL) 1.3 liter

Japanese engines:

  • 2E — 1.3 liter
  • 5A-F — 1.5 liter
  • 5A-FHE — 1.5 liter
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 liter
  • 4A-GE — 1.6 liter
  • 4A-GZE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, wide valve angle, supercharger, 165 hp (121 kW) GT-Z

USA (1988-1992)

Toyota Corolla DX AE92(North American Model)
Toyota Corolla DX AE92(North American Model)
Toyota Corolla wagon
Toyota Corolla wagon

North American production of the sedan took place at NUMMI and Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. These two plants made 279,000 units, making a total of 4.5 million of this generation (AE92) made. The North American models depart from the previous generation's boxy styling, for a more contemporary look and improved aerodynamics. They feature longer bumpers and small red indicator lights on the quarter panels.

Minor changes for 1991 model years were Toyota (T) ellipse emblem on the grille, all-red tail lights, door-mounted and manual lap front seat belts, and new wheelcovers for DX. Rear garnish was deleted for the Base model. The LE was only available with automatic transmission.

The North American Corolla coupé with retractable headlights was basically a Sprinter Trueno with different front corner lights and longer bumpers. Trim levels are SR5 and GT-S. The GT-S is powered by 4A-GE engine, and comes with full body kits.

Toyota Corolla All-Trac wagon
Toyota Corolla All-Trac wagon

The four-wheel drive All-trac wagon in Base and SR5 trim levels were sold from 1988 to 1992 and had different bodywork to other Corollas. The Corolla All-trac sedan was sold in very small numbers.

The Geo Prizm shared a slightly different body with the Japan-market Sprinter, and built as sedan and liftback. These models were slightly more basic than their Europe/Japan versions.

American engines:

  • 4A-F — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, carb, 95 hp (71 kW)
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 102 hp (76 kW)
  • 4A-GE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, wide valve angle, 115 hp (86 kW) GT-S

US-market chassis & VIN code: The Japanese built has JT2 VIN prefix, the NUMMI made has 1NX VIN prefix and the Cambridge built units have the 2T1 prefix.

  • AE92 — Sedan 4-door Std (AE91), DX (AE94), LE (AE97)
  • AE92 — Coupé 2-door SR5 (AE96), GT-S (AE98)
  • AE9? — FWD wagon 5-door DX (AE94)
  • AE95 — 4WD sedan 4-door All-Trac (AE94)
  • AE95 — FWD/4WD wagon 5-door Std, DX, All-Trac (AE95)

Europe (1988-1992)

European engines:

  • 2E — 1.3 L (1295 cc), 12-valve SOHC, carb, 74 hp (55 kW)
  • 4A-F — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, carb, 95 hp (71 kW)
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 102 hp (76 kW)
  • 4A-GE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, wide valve angle, 115 hp (86 kW) GT-S
  • 1C-III — 1.8 L (1839 cc) I4 diesel, OHC, 67 hp (50 kW)

European-market chassis:

  • EE90 — 1.3 Sedan 4-door (XL)
  • AE92 - 1.6 Sedan 4-door (GL, GLi, XLi)
  • AE92 — 1.6 Hatchback 3-door (GT-i)
  • Liftback 5-door based on Sprinter sedan (XL, GL, GT)

The European model Corolla 4-door sedan, 3 and 5-door hatchback, and the wagon basically has the front end of the Japan-spec Corolla FX, except for the all white clearance lights and the "TOYOTA" or the ellipse emblem instead of the "FX" or "GT" of the Japanese model. It has the standard side marker lights and the taillight with the integrated rear foglamp (except for the wagon, which has the rear foglamp on the tailgate.) It also has headlight washers on the XL and the XLi models.

Australia (1988-1994)

Australian engines:

  • 4A-F — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, carb, 95 hp (71 kW) CS, CSX & Spirit
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 102 hp (76 kW) XL, SR5, CSi, CSi Limited, Olympic Spirit
  • 4A-GE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, wide valve angle, 135hp (100 kW) SX & GTi
  • 6A-FC — 1.4 L (1397cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, carb, narrow valve angle, 81 hp (60 kW) SE
  • 7A-FE — 1.8 L (1762 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 115 hp (85 kW) Seca RV & Seca Ultima

Australian-market chassis:

  • E-90 — Sedan, Hatchback (SE)
  • E-92 — Sedan, Hatchback, Seca (CS, CSX, Spirit, SE, SX)
  • E-93 — Hatchback, Seca (SX, GTi)
  • E-94 — Sedan, Hatchback, Seca (CSi, CSi Limited, Ultima)
  • E-95 — Wagon (XL, SR5, CSi, Olympic Spirit)
  • E-96 — Seca (RV, Ultima)


  • Liftbacks were referred to as Secas on the Australian market
  • All 6th generation Corollas were 4 door on the Australian market
  • The Sprinter Carib Wagon was released in mid 1988, Hatchback, Seca & Sedan released mid 1989
  • SX is generally AE93 although on rare occasions they are found to be AE92R
  • The facelift series 2 models were released in October 1992
  • 6AFC was only found in SE hatchbacks and early SE Sedans
  • 7AFE corollas were AE94 Ultimas in early 1992 and AE96 Ultimas & RV's in late 92 onwards

Seventh generation — E100 series — June 1991

Seventh generation
Also called Geo Prizm
Production 1991-1997
Body style(s) Sedan, 3-door hatchback, 5-door hatchback, coupé, liftback, Station wagon.
Layout FF layout
Engine(s) Gasoline: 1.3, 1.5, 1.6, 1.6 Supercharged: 1.8 liter. Diesel: 2.0 liter.
Transmission(s) 3-Speed Automatic
4-Speed Automatic Overdrive
5-Speed Manual Overdrive
6-Speed Manual
Wheelbase 246 cm (97.0 in.)
Length 437 cm (172.0 in.)
Width 168 cm (66.3 in.)
Height 136 cm (54.3 in.)
Curb weight 1052 kg (2315 lbs)
Similar Honda Civic
Hyundai Elantra
Mazda Protege
Nissan Sentra / Nissan Sunny

The next Corolla (AE10x/EE10x) was larger, heavier, and visually more aerodynamic than the model it replaces, with development chief Dr. Akihiko Saito wanting to develop a 'mini-Lexus', after success with that range's flagship. With its 2465 mm (97 in) wheelbase, the Corolla had moved into the compact size class once occupied by the Toyota Corona and Camry. The coupé was dropped for North America, replaced by the Paseo.

The Corolla sedan is nicknamed "Great Corolla" in Indonesia. Initially the trim levels were 1.3 SE and 1.6 SE-G. The smaller engine model was replaced by 1.6 SE in 1994.

The 1.3 XLi, 1.5 GLi sedan, wagon, and Levin 1.5 SJ coupé were sold in Hong Kong.

In the Philippines, three variants were sold, XL and XE with 1.3-liter carbureted (2E) engines, and the GLi, with a 1.6-liter fuel-injected motor (4A-FE). The top model was offered in both manual and automatic transmissions. The Corolla was also the first 1.6-liter car to introduce 14-inch alloy wheels to the country in 1992. Other pioneer features that followed were rear seatbelts (late 1994) and a driver's airbag (late 1995).

Japan (1991-1996)

This model was not as successful compared to previous series due to a rising yen and home-market recession, blunting demand. The standard Corolla model range included the 5 door hatch back and lift back models, 2 door hatch back and the 4 door sedan and station wagon models. Also returning in this model line were the two-door coupés, the Trueno and the Levin. A 4WD variant of the sedan and station wagon were also available with a 1.6 liter gasoline or 2.0 liter diesel engine. Minor face lift changes were introduced in May of 1993 these included a new grille, a reconfiguration of the rear lamps and various bits of trim and garnish. Various submodels including the 4-door hardtop Corolla Ceres and Sprinter Marino were also available. They bore no real exterior resemblance but feature the chassis and most of the engine range of the standard Corollas.

Japanese engines:

  • 4E-FE — 1.3 L (1331 cc) I4 cylinder 16v DOHC 97ps
  • 5E-FE — 1.5 L (1497 cc) I4 cylinder 16v DOHC 105ps
  • 5A-FE — 1.5 L (1498 cc) I4 cylinder 16v DOHC 105ps
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4 cylinder 16v DOHC 115ps
  • 4A-GE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4 cylinder 20v DOHC VVT 160ps
  • 2C — 2.0 L Diesel (1974 cc) I4 cylinder SOHC 73ps

Japanese manual transaxles:

  • C40 4M/T
  • C51 5M/T
  • C52 5M/T
  • C50 5M/T
  • C56 5M/T
  • C160 6M/T
  • S50 5M/T
  • E59F 5M/T
  • E55F 5M/T (4WD)

Japanese automatic transaxles:

  • A240L 4A/T
  • A254E 4A/T
  • A246E 4A/T
  • A241L 4A/T
  • A132L 3A/T
  • A241H 4A/T (4WD)

JPN-market chassis: The following list is not complete or inclusive.

  • EE100 — 1.3 liter sedan (DX, LX, XE).
  • EE104 - 1.3 liter wagon.
  • AE100 — 1.5 liter sedan (DX, LX, XE, SE-Limited), and coupé (Levin / Trueno S).
  • AE101 — 1.6 liter sedan (SE-G, GT), FX hatchback (SJ, GT), Wagon (BZ-Touring), hardtop Ceres, and coupé (Levin / Trueno SJ, GT, GT APEX, GT-Z).
  • AE104 — 1.6 liter sedan 4WD (LX Limited, XE, SE Limited).
  • CE104 - diesel sedan 4WD
  • CE106 — Wagon, 5-door, Diesel.
  • CE109 - Highroof Van, 5 door, Diesel.

USA and Canada (1993-1997)

In North America, the Corolla was new for the 1993 model year. It had a different grille and longer bumpers than models for other regions. The base model came with the 1.6 liter 4A-FE engine. The DX, LE and wagon came with the 1.8 liter 7A-FE. The 1993 and 1994 versions of the 7A-FE engine were rated at 86 kW (115 hp), later versions rated at 78 kW (105 hp). The LE has sporty front seats and was available in the US with A/T only or available in Canada with either A/T or M/T. Minor changes occurred for the 1996 model year. Among these changes, the DX received bright red/clear tail lights and rear garnish, and new wheel covers. The LE was discontinued for 1996, and the Base model was also offered with CE Package. Sporty Corollas and 4WD Corollas were no longer imported during this generation. Some 1993 Corollas sold in Canada were produced in Japan.

USA and Canada Engines:

  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 105 hp (78 kW)
  • 7A-FE — 1.8 L (1762 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 115 hp (86 kW) DX LE Wagon
  • 7A-FE — 1.8 L (1762 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 105 hp (78 kW) DX LE Wagon

US and Canada chassis codes:

  • E-101 — Sedan 4-door with 1.6 4A-FE (Base, CE)
  • E-102 — Sedan 4-door with 1.8 7A-FE (DX, LE)
  • E-102 — Wagon 5-door with 1.8 7A-FE (DX, LE)

Europe (1992-1997)

The five-door Sprinter was sold as the Corolla Sprinter in some markets in Europe. The three and five-door Corolla FX was also sold in Europe simply as the Corolla, and was available mostly in normal (non-sports) specs unlike the FX range available in Japan. In Europe, the hatchback sold better than sedan and wagon. Although basically the trim levels are Base, XLi and GLi, also there was the GS. The GS featured a fully colour coded exterior and with full electrics and a tilt/slide steel sunroof. It also had an upgraded interior with white dials and a rev counter. in UK the Corolla was marketed as S, CD, and CDX. The sedan has rear license plate mounted on the trunk as opposed to other region models on the bumper.

Additional Engines available in Europe:

  • 2E — 1.3 L (1296 cc) I4, 12-valve SOHC, Carburetor 71 hp (53 kW)
  • 4E-FE — 1.3 L (1332 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 88 hp (65 kW) (1992-1995)
  • 4E-FE — 1.4 L I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, "Ecotronic", 75 hp (55 kW) (1996-1997)
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 115 hp (84 kW) Si
  • 2C-III — 2.0 L (1975 cc) diesel (53 kW)

Eighth Generation — E110 series — May 1995

Eighth generation
Also called Chevrolet Prizm
Production 1995-2002
Body style(s) 4-door sedan, 2-door coupé, 3-door hatchback, 5-door liftback, wagon
Layout FF layout
Engine(s) 1.6L I4
1.8L I4
Transmission(s) 3-Speed Automatic
4-Speed Automatic Overdrive
5-Speed Manual Overdrive
6-Speed Manual Overdrive
Wheelbase 246 cm (97.0 in.)
Length 442 cm (174.0 in.)
Width 169 cm (66.7 in.)
Height 138 cm (54.5 in.)
Curb weight 1095 kg (2414 lbs.)
Related Toyota RAV4
Geo Prizm
Chevrolet Prizm
Similar Honda Civic
Hyundai Elantra
Mazda Protege
Mitsubishi Mirage

The eighth generation, which shared its platform (and doors, on some models) with its predecessor, was introduced in May 1995. Due to a recession, Toyota ordered that Corolla development chief Takayasu Honda cut costs, hence the carryover engineering.

For the general market, the Corolla was offered in Base, XLi, GLi, and SE-G trim levels.

Japan (1995-2000)

This marked the beginning of the end of the Sprinter. The Sprinter Trueno coupé range was carried over with a facelift, while the wagon was identical to the Corolla.

Japanese models received minor changes in April 1997 with new nose, tail, and interior. The rear panel is totally different, therefore the trunk and tail lights are not interchangeable between the old and facelift models. The new Japanese rear panel is the same as the European model.

Japanese Engines:

  • 4A-GE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 20-valve DOHC, FI, 165 hp (123 kW)
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 115 hp (86 kW)
  • 5A-FE — 1.5 L (1498 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • 4E-FE — 1.3 L (1331 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 88 hp (66 kW)
  • 3C-E — 2.2 L (2184 cc) I4, diesel, Electronic Fuel Injection, 79 hp (59 kW)
  • 2C-III — 2.0 L (1974 cc) I4, diesel, FI, 73 hp (54 kW)

JPN-market chassis:

  • E-111 — Sedan SE-G, S-Cruise, GT
  • E-110 — Sedan LX, XE, SE Limited
  • E-114AWD sedan

USA (1998-2002)

All North American Corollas were now built in California (by NUMMI) or Canada (by TMMC). A new all-aluminum engine powered all Corollas, making this generation lighter than its predecessor. In the US market only sedans were offered. Grades are VE, CE, and LE. The Touring Package with side skirts, a whiteface instrument cluster, and aluminum wheels are reserved for CE and LE. VVT-i variable valve timing was added to the engine for 2000. For 2001 model year, the VE was deleted, the CE became the base model and the sporty S was added as the replacement of the Touring Package.

The Chevrolet Prizm (replacing the Geo Prizm) had two main differences from the Toyota Corolla, though they were made in the same plant: it used the Japanese intake manifold and tuning, and put in a Delco stereo, which provided better sound quality but required a replumbing of the center stack as the Delco unit is taller than the Denso. The 1999 Prizm has a Delco HVAC system which is different from the Corolla.

The US-market 2001 Toyota Corolla has a maximum legal carrying capacity of 390 kg (850 lbs).

American engines: (ZZE-112)

  • 1998-1999 — 1ZZ-FE — 1.8 L (1794 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 120 hp (89 kW) @ 5600 rpm, 165 Nm (122 ft·lbs.) @ 4400 rpm
  • 2000-2002 — 1ZZ-FE — 1.8 L (1794 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVT-i, 125 hp (93 kW)

Europe and Oceania (1996-2001)

This range had different front and rear ends to the Japanese models, though the sides and interior remained mostly the same. It can be distinguished by the round headlights and mesh grille. As a result, a sporting model with a six-speed gearbox was offered. The European three door hatchback is the base for the Corolla World Rally Car (WRC). In Australia the Corolla liftback is called Seca. Grades for sedan and Seca are Ascent, Conquest, and Ultima. The Seca Sportivo with turbocharged 7A-FE engine was added in 2001. In 1997, the Corolla Spacio, with its body panels stamped at long-time Toyota supplier Kanto Autoworks, was introduced as a two-box minivan version and sold as the Toyota Corolla Verso, which was technically similar to the Toyota Avensis in Europe and the Toyota Spacio in New Zealand.

This generation received a facelift in 1999, featuring a different nose (the previous round headlights proved unpopular, so it was replaced with twin smaller headlights under a single cover on either side ), and the new ZZ series engines with VVT-i replacing the old A series engines.

Ninth generation — E120 series — August 2000

Ninth generation
Facelifted Toyota Corolla S (USDM)
Production 2000-present
Body style(s) Sedan, 3- and 5-door hatchback, wagon, van
Layout FF layout
Engine(s) 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8 litre gasoline, 2.2 litre diesel
Transmission(s) 4-Speed Automatic Overdrive
5-Speed Manual Overdrive
6-Speed Manual Overdrive
Wheelbase 260 cm (102.4 in)
Length 453 cm (178.3 in) (Altis and North American spec)
Width 170 cm (66.9 in)
Height 149 cm (58.5 in)
Related Toyota Matrix
Toyota Voltz
Toyota RAV4
Pontiac Vibe
Similar Honda Civic
Hyundai Elantra
Nissan Sentra

The ninth-generation Corolla (NZE120/ZZE120) appeared in August 2000 with edgier styling and a longer 2600 mm (102.4 in) wheelbase. It is built on a shortened Toyota Vista platform—the Vista being a mid-sized, rather than compact car.

The Corolla has also spawned another multi-purpose vehicle, the Matrix, sold in Canada and the United States, and forms the basis of the Pontiac Vibe. The Vibe, in turn, was sold with a different grille in Japan and is called the Toyota Voltz.

Japan (2000-2006)

Like the Vista, the Corolla's width is limited to 1700 mm (67 in), to avoid being in a higher tax bracket in Japan.

The station wagon model is called the Toyota Corolla Fielder in Japan, and the five-door the Toyota Corolla Runx launching in 2001. The Allex was also launched to replace the Sprinter.

The Toyota Corolla Spacio (Verso in Europe) moved on to the new platform, with later models adding a third row of fold-down seating in the back.

Europe (2002-2007)

Most European models are wider than the Japanese counterparts.

European engines:

  • 2002–present — 4ZZ-FE — 1.4 L (1398 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVT-i, 95 hp (71 kW)
  • 2002–present — 3ZZ-FE — 1.6 L (1598 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVT-i, 109 hp (81 kW)
  • 2002–2005 — 2ZZ-GE — 1.8 L (1796 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVTL-i, 189 hp (141 kW)
  • 2006–present — 2ZZ-GE — 1.8 L (1796 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, supercharged, FI, VVTL-i, 215 hp (162 kW) — Compressor
  • 2004–present — 1ND-TV — 1.4 L (1364 cc) I4 diesel, 16-valve DOHC, turbocharged, D-4D, 89 hp (66 kW)
  • 2003–present — 1CD-FTV — 2.0 L (1995 cc) I4 diesel, 16-valve DOHC, turbocharged, D-4D, 114 hp (85 kW)

Southeast Asia (excluding Hong Kong, Japan & India)

An offshoot of the Corolla model, called the Corolla Altis is also sold there. Sharing similar front and rear ends to the U.S. Corolla, the Altis is targeted at consumers who prefer more comfort than the current Corolla but do not wish to buy the more luxurious Camry. The Corolla Altis is manufactured in Thailand. Two versions of engine are available, the 87 kW (116 bhp) 1.6 3ZZ-FE engine and the 100 kW (134 bhp) 1.8 1ZZ-FE engine, both featuring VVTi. The Altis range of the Corolla is sold in Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. For 2004 model year, the Altis received a new grille design, LED tail lights, and different alloy wheels. In Singapore, Toyota's exclusive authorised dealer Borneo Motors originally sold the Japanese-version Corolla, but later replaced it with the Corolla Altis. In Thailand, the Japanese Corolla is also branded as the Toyota Limo, featuring lower spec and intended for taxi business. It is not to be confused with the taxi version of Toyota Vios which is also called Toyota Limo, but in Indonesia. Certain models of the Altis (possibly older versions) have slightly different rear lights when compared to the North American version. In Sri Lanka the local Toyota agents sell the Japanese made Corolla almost identical in exterior shape to the JDM model. The interior is less luxurious and they offer a Non-VVTI version of the 2NZ-FE 1.3l engine as the entry level. The interior of the 1.3 base model lacks power shutters and central locking.

USA and Canada (2003-current)

The North American model is longer and is the same as the Corolla Altis distributed in Southeast Asia. It came to the United States in Spring 2002 as model year 2003. Initially trim levels are CE, S, and LE. Stereo radios may be AM/FM single disc player, or AM/FM six CD disc in-dash player. Typically the six disc radio comes with six speakers as opposed to the four speakers. The two additional speakers are on the door inside by the mirrors. ABS is an option and may be difficult to find. Side and head airbags are an option, and may be difficult to find. The factory installed radio in the Corolla typically does NOT have an XM or Sirius satellite radio button or connection. Toyota had no plans to offer an XM or Sirius adapter kit for factory Corolla radios as of January 2007. However, there are aftermarket SAT button emulators that may work. Factory radios are reportedly manufactured by Panasonic (Matsushita A51813 and A51814 on radio face) and Eclipse (Fujitsu Ten) or JBL(A51815 on the radio face) depending on procurement of parts by the factory. No iPod adapter kits are available for Corolla from Toyota for the factory radios. Some upgrades for equipment may be in the works, however this is backstage to new model development.

The torsion bar suspension and drum brakes in the rear are anachronisms, however. The sporty XRS model, introduced for 2005 & 2006 only, features the high-revving 127 kW (170 hp) 172 Nm (127 ft lbs) 2ZZ-GE engine and 6-speed manual from the Toyota Celica GT-S and Lotus Elise.

American engines: (ZZE-122)

  • 2002-present — 1ZZ-FE — 1.8 L (1794 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVT-i, 130 hp (97 kW) — CE, LE, S (TRD 1.8L Supercharger is available for this engine)
  • 2005 — 2ZZ-GE — 1.8 L (1796 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVTL-i, 170 hp (127 kW) — XRS

Rest of the world

In Brazil, the Corolla sedan and the Corolla Fielder are built locally. It is available with the 1.6 3ZZ-FE engine (sedan only) and the 1ZZ-FE. The sedan is externally identical to the US model, but the Fielder has a different styling from the Japanese version.

The Corolla sedan, wagon and 5-door hatchback (Seca) sold in Australia are sourced from Japan, while a few years ago, some hatchbacks were sourced from South Africa. Trim levels are Ascent, Ascent Sport, Conquest, and Ultima (Auto sedan only). The sporty Levin (hatchback and wagon) and high performance Sportivo was available in hatchback only and was built in South Africa. The Sportivo is powered by 2ZZ-GE engine and a six-speed manual gearbox (also used in the Celica) , while the other models have 1ZZ-FE. The Sportivo was discontinued in Australia from 2006 due to the prohibitive costs involved in modifying the engine to comply with Euro IV emissions. All the other models all had their engine power and torque reduced to 93 kW and 161 N•m from 100 kW and 171 N•m respectively from October 2005 production to comply with Euro IV. From May 2006 production, the Ascent and Ascent Sport models were upgraded with standard front power windows and passenger airbag, while the Conquest models had ABS brakes as standard fitment. The equipment upgrades only apply to the sedan and hatch models as the Corolla wagon ceased production in August 2006.

In China, when Toyota introduced its locally-made Corolla, it is named as Toyota Huaguan, Huaguan being the translation of the word corolla.

Tenth Generation — E140 series — October 2006

Tenth generation
Toyota Corolla Axio
Production 2006-present
Body style(s) Sedan, Wagon
Layout FF layout
Related Toyota Auris
Similar Chevrolet Cobalt
Honda Civic
Nissan Sentra
Toyota Corolla Fielder
Toyota Corolla Fielder

The tenth generation Corolla was released in Japan on October 10, 2006.


The sedan is now known as the Corolla Axio The Axio name was created from the Greek word "axia", meaning "things with value". The station wagon retains the Corolla Fielder name. To save neck-twisting, the Corolla gets Toyota's latest intelligent parking-assist system. The option costs ¥105,000, or $879 at current exchange rates. A backup camera monitor is standard. All hatchback models were replaced by the Toyota Auris.


A rearview monitor displays an image of the area to the rear of the vehicle while backing up to reduce the burden on the driver when parking (standard on all Corolla Axio models).

The optional advanced Intelligent Parking Assist system supports steering operations when parallel parking and backing into a parking space. Ultrasonic sensors installed on the front of the vehicle detect other parked vehicles and based on the results estimate the physical dimensions of a vacant parking space and set the target parking position. The Corolla Axio features a new Pre-crash Safety System that uses millimeter-wave radar. When the millimeter-wave radar detects a high risk of collision, the Pre-crash Seatbelts provide better initial restraint capabilities for passengers while the Pre-Crash Brake Assist system decelerates the vehicle to reduce the collision speed and contribute to less collision-caused damage. The new Radar Cruise Control system detects and monitors the preceding vehicle and the lane, maintaining a fixed distance according to the preceding vehicle's speed within a preset range of speed.

North America

The North American market will not get the redesigned Corolla until early 2008 as a 2009 model. That will stretch the goal of Toyota President Katsuaki Watanabe to release the Corolla in overseas markets within "a year and a few months" of the Japan debut. Insiders say the plain-vanilla styling offered in Japan can't compete against the Honda Civic in North America.

It is rumored that the North American verson of the redesigned Corolla will have an exterior design similar to the 2007 Toyota Camry.


The new Corolla will be introduced to the Australian market early in 2007. It will be available in both sedan and hatchback models, with more safety features and higher levels of luxury. The new 1.8-litre 2ZR-FE Dual VVT-i - with variable valve timing in the exhaust valves - will be the only engine available for the Australian model, with superior fuel economy as its key selling feature. It is expected that the new Corolla will be fitted with a 6-speed manual transmission as standard, with a CVT as a likely option, if not a 5-speed automatic, along with features normally reserved for Lexus models, including xenon headlamps and additional airbags for rear passengers. Although the new hatch will be wearing the Auris name in most world markets, it has been confirmed by Toyota Australia that the Corolla name will be retained for the Australian market.

Europe and China

The global debut of the third variant of the new Corolla was staged at the Beijing Auto Show. This variant, which uses a wider and longer version of the Axio's platform, has styling similar to that of the Camry's while keeping the Axio's interior. The European and Chinese market will receive this variant, which is likely to also be sold in ASEAN and Taiwan markets as the new Altis. The Chinese market Corolla's name was also changed to match the English name in pronunciation. In some European markets such as the UK, only the Auris is sold.